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Quantum Mechanics

In 1900 Max Planck proposes a new idea. He assumes that the radiation energy is emitted, not continuously, but rather in discrete packets called quanta. He named these quantities quanta. He used to believe that mathematics could be useful but what scientists really had to do was to change their view generally. In 1905 A. Einstein publishes three individual works. The first one concerned the Special Theory of Relativity; the second had to do with Brown phenomenon and the third one was about Photoelectric Effect. To explain it, he uses the concept of quanta. Thus, indirectly he accepts Planck's idea. Meanwhile, the questions about the nature of light remain.

gravityIn 1912, a French prince, Louis de Broglie exposes a simple and at the same time exceptional thought. If energy is transmitted both with particles and waves, mass has to behave the same way. This thought was considered ridiculous, so ridiculous that he hardly obtained his PhD. However, de Broglie believed in his idea and he made several experiments using electrons, which they certainly carry an amount of mass. He observed that electrons behave without doubt as waves. Matter and energy could represent the duality of light!

Τhis is where Quantumechanics is present for first time. Quantumechanics meant to change the way we treat science. This chapter could include much more information, but we will try to keep our view only on our subject. Let us see first some basic concepts of Quantumechanics: Quantum theory explains in principle how to calculate what will happen in any experiment involving physical or biological systems, and how to understand how our world works. Quantum theory is different from classical physics. Classical physics is an approximation of the set of rules and equations in quantum theory. Classical physics accurately describes the behaviour of matter and energy in the everyday universe. Quantum theory, on the other hand, can accurately describe the behaviour of the universe on a much smaller scale, that of atoms and smaller particles. The rules of classical physics do not explain the behaviour of matter and energy on this small scale. Quantum theory is more general than classical physics, and in principle, it could be used to predict the behaviour of any physical, chemical, or biological system. However, explaining the behaviour of the everyday world with quantum theory is too complicated to be practical.

Quantum theory not only specifies new rules for describing the universe but also introduces new ways of thinking about matter and energy. The tiny particles that quantum theory describes do not have defined locations, speeds, and paths like objects described by classical physics. Instead, quantum theory describes positions and other properties of particles in terms of the chances that the property will have a certain value. For example, it allows scientists to calculate how likely it is that a particle will be in a certain position at a certain time. Quantum theory describes all of the fundamental forces -except gravitation- that physicists have found in nature. The forces that quantum theory describes are the electrical, the magnetic, the weak, and the strong. Physicists often refer to these forces as interactions, because the forces control the way particles interact with each other. Interactions also affect spontaneous changes in isolated particles.

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