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Total Refraction

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The ray of light passes from a more dense medium (water) to a less dense (air).

The deviation from the normal increases as the angle of incidence increases. When the angle of incidence reaches a critical value the rays of light are totally reflected back to the water. At this point the Snell's law is: sin(θ) = n1 / n2, where θ is the angle of incidence and n1, n2 the refractive indexes of air and water respectively.